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Life Safety and Fire Fighting Systems – The weakest hyperlink

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Elbow 90 , Tee , Host Nipple , Street Elbow , Coupling , Round Cap , Red Socket ,
Hex Bushing , Square Plug ,Union F/F , Hex Nipple , Reduce Hex Nipple , Cross , 45 Elbow
2 90 ELBLOW

90 Elbow

ข้องอ 90 เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 TEE

Tee

3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 NIPPLE

Nipple

ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

14 STREET ELBOW

Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 COUPLING

Coupling

ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 ROUND CAP

Round Cap

ฝาครอบเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 REDUCE SOCKET

Reduce Socket

ข้อต่อลด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 HEX BUSHING

Hex Bushing

ข้อลดเหลี่ยม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

13 SQUARE PLUG

Square Plug

ปลั๊กอุด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

15 UNION

Union

ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 REDUCE NIPPLE

Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 CROSS

Cross

เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Our Fitting Product​

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Ball Valve 1pc , 2pc ,3pc , Gate Valve , Globe Valve , Y-Strainer , Swing Check Valve , Spring Check Valve ,Needle Valve
17 BALL VALVE 1PC

Ball Valve 1 pc

วาล์ว บอล 1 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

18 BALL VALVE 2PC

Ball Valve 2 pc

วาล์ว บอล 2 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

19 BALL VALVE 3PC

Ball Valve 3 pc

วาล์ว บอล 3 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

20 BALL VALVE 3WAY

Ball Valve 3 way

วาล์ว บอล 3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

26 NEEDLE VALVE

Needle Valve

วาล์วเข็ม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

21 GATE VALVE

Gate Valve

วาล์วประตู เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

22 GLOBE VALVE

Globe Valve

วาล์วควบคุม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

24 Y STRAINER VALVE

Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

23 SWING CHECK VALVE

Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

25 SPRING CHECK VALVE

Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

ฟิตติ้งสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งสแตนเลสเกรดโรงงานอุตสาหกรรม ราคาถูก

Valve Stainless

วาล์วสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

Fitting Brass

ฟิตติ้งทองเหลือง
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งทองเหลืองราคาส่ง
FITTINGTHAI BRASS PRODUCT
Our Fitting Product​

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Ball Valve 1pc , 2pc ,3pc , Gate Valve , Globe Valve , Y-Strainer , Swing Check Valve , Spring Check Valve ,Needle Valve
1 Brass Adapter

Brass Adapter

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

2 Brass Bushing

Brass Bushing

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Unlike different cables, fire resistant cables should work even when immediately uncovered to the fireplace to keep essential Life Safety and Fire Fighting equipment working: Fire alarms, Emergency Lighting, Emergency Communication, Fire Sprinkler pumps, Fireman’s Lift sub-main, Smoke extraction fans, Smoke dampers, Stair pressurization fans, Emergency Generator circuits and so forth.
In order to classify electric cables as hearth resistant they are required to bear testing and certification. Perhaps the first common hearth tests on cables have been IEC 331: 1970 and later BS6387:1983 which adopted a gas ribbon burner check to produce a flame in which cables were positioned.
Since the revision of BS6387 in 1994 there have been 11 enhancements, revisions or new check standards launched by British Standards to be used and utility of Fire Resistant cables however none of these seem to handle the core problem that fire resistant cables where tested to widespread British and IEC flame take a look at standards usually are not required to perform to the same hearth efficiency time-temperature profiles as each different construction, system or part in a building. Specifically, where hearth resistant buildings, methods, partitions, hearth doors, hearth penetrations fire obstacles, floors, walls and so on. are required to be hearth rated by constructing laws, they are tested to the Standard Time Temperature protocol of BS476 parts 20 to 23 (also often recognized as ISO834-1, ASNZS1530pt4, EN1363-1 and in America and Canada ASTM E119-75).
These tests are carried out in massive furnaces to copy actual publish flashover fireplace environments. Interestingly, compound gauge ราคา take a look at requirements like BS 6387CWZ, SS299, IEC 60331 BS8343-1 and 2, BS8491 only require cables to be exposed to a flame in air and to lower last check temperatures (than required by BS476 pts 20 to 23). Given Fire Resistant cables are more probably to be exposed in the same fireplace, and are wanted to make sure all Life Safety and Fire Fighting systems stay operational, this fact is probably surprising.
Contrastingly in Germany, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada Fire Resistant cable techniques are required to be tested to the same fire Time Temperature protocol as all different constructing components and this is the Standard Time Temperature protocol to BS476pts 20-23, IS0 834-1, EN1363-1 or ASTM E119-75 in USA.
The committees creating the standard drew on the guidance given from the International Fire Prevention Congress held in London in July 1903 and the measurements of furnace temperatures made in plenty of fire tests carried out in the UK, Germany and the United States. The checks had been described in a sequence of “Red Books” issued by the British Fire Prevention Committee after 1903 as nicely as those from the German Royal Technical Research Laboratory. The finalization of the ASTM commonplace was heavily influenced by Professor I.H. Woolson, a Consulting Engineer of the USA National Board of Fire Underwriters and Chairman of the NFPA committee in Fire Resistive Construction who had carried out many checks at Columbia University and Underwriters Laboratories in Chicago. The small time temperature differences between the International ISO 834-1 check as we know it today and the America ASTM E119 / NFPA 251 checks probably stemmed from this time.
Image courtesy of MICC Ltd.
The curve as we see it today (see graph above) has turn into the usual scale for measurement of fire check severity and has proved relevant for many above floor cellulosic buildings. When elements, structures, parts or systems are tested, the furnace temperatures are controlled to conform to the curve with a set allowable variance and consideration for initial ambient temperatures. The standards require parts to be tested in full scale and beneath conditions of support and loading as defined so as to represent as precisely as possible its features in service.
This Standard Time Temperature testing protocol (see graph right) is adopted by virtually all international locations all over the world for hearth testing and certification of just about all constructing structures, parts, systems and elements with the interesting exception of fireplace resistant cables (exception in USA, Canada, Australia, Germany, Belgium and New Zealand the place fireplace resistant cable systems are required to be examined and accredited to the Standard Time Temperature protocol, similar to all different building constructions, parts and components).
It is important to grasp that application requirements from BS, IEC, ASNZS, DIN, UL and so on. where fireplace resistive cables are specified to be used, are solely ‘minimum’ requirements. We know at present that fires are not all the same and analysis by Universities, Institutions and Authorities around the world have identified that Underground and a few Industrial environments can exhibit very totally different fire profiles to those in above floor cellulosic buildings. Specifically in confined underground public areas like Road and Rail Tunnels, Underground Shopping centers, Car Parks hearth temperatures can exhibit a very quick rise time and might reach temperatures properly above these in above floor buildings and in far much less time. In USA right now electrical wiring methods are required by NFPA 502 (Road Tunnels, Bridges and other Limited Access Highways) to withstand hearth temperatures as much as 1,350 Degrees C for 60 minutes and UK British Standard BS8519:2010 clearly identifies underground public areas corresponding to automobile parks as “Areas of Special Risk” the place more stringent test protocols for essential electric cable circuits may must be thought of by designers.
Standard Time Temperature curves (Europe and America) plotted in opposition to common BS and IEC cable checks.
Of course all underground environments whether highway, rail and pedestrian tunnels, or underground public environments like purchasing precincts, automobile parks and so forth. could exhibit different hearth profiles to these in above ground buildings as a result of In these environments the heat generated by any hearth can’t escape as easily as it’d in above floor buildings thus relying extra on heat and smoke extraction gear.
For Metros Road and Rail Tunnels, Hospitals, Health care facilities, Underground public environments like buying precincts, Very High Rise, Theaters, Public Halls, Government buildings, Airports and so forth. that is particularly necessary. Evacuation of those public environments is commonly slow even during emergencies, and it’s our responsibility to make sure everyone is given the very best probability of secure egress throughout fireplace emergencies.
It can be understood at present that copper Fire Resistant cables where put in in galvanized metal conduit can fail prematurely during hearth emergency due to a response between the copper conductors and zinc galvanizing inside the metal conduit. In 2012 United Laboratories (UL®) in America eliminated all certification for Fire Resistive cables where put in in galvanized steel conduit for this reason:
UL® Quote: “A concern was dropped at our attention associated to the performance of those merchandise in the presence of zinc. We validated this finding. As a result of this, we changed our Guide Information to indicate that every one conduit and conduit fittings that are available contact with hearth resistive cables should have an interior coating free of zinc”.
Time temperature profile of tunnel fires utilizing automobiles, HGV trailers with completely different cargo and rail carriages. Graph extract: Haukur Ingason and Anders Lonnermark of the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute who offered the paper at the First International Symposium in Prague 2004: Safe and Reliable Tunnels.
It would seem that some Standards authorities all over the world could need to evaluation the current take a look at methodology presently adopted for fireplace resistive cable testing and maybe align the efficiency of Life Safety and Fire Fighting wiring techniques with that of all the opposite fire resistant buildings, elements and systems in order that Architects, building designers and engineers know that when they need a hearth ranking that the essential wiring system shall be equally rated.
For many power, control, communication and data circuits there’s one expertise obtainable which can meet and surpass all current fire checks and functions. It is a solution which is incessantly used in demanding public buildings and has been employed reliably for over 80 years. MICC cable expertise can present a complete and full answer to all the problems related to the fireplace safety risks of recent versatile organic polymer cables.
The metallic jacket, magnesium oxide insulation and conductors of MICC cables make sure the cable is successfully hearth proof. Bare MICC cables haven’t any organic content material so simply cannot propagate flame or generate any smoke. The zero fuel-load of these MICC cables ensures no heat is added to the hearth and no oxygen is consumed. Being inorganic these MICC cables cannot generate any halogen or poisonous gasses at all including Carbon Monoxide. MICC cable designs can meet all the current and constructing fireplace resistance efficiency requirements in all international locations and are seeing a big enhance in use globally.
Many engineers have beforehand thought of MICC cable know-how to be “old school’ however with the brand new research in fire performance MICC cable system are now proven to have far superior fire performances than any of the newer extra fashionable flexible hearth resistant cables.
For further information, go to www.temperature-house.com
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