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Fundamentals of high-rise hearth security

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2 90 ELBLOW

90 Elbow

ข้องอ 90 เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 TEE

Tee

3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 NIPPLE

Nipple

ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

14 STREET ELBOW

Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 COUPLING

Coupling

ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 ROUND CAP

Round Cap

ฝาครอบเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 REDUCE SOCKET

Reduce Socket

ข้อต่อลด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 HEX BUSHING

Hex Bushing

ข้อลดเหลี่ยม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

13 SQUARE PLUG

Square Plug

ปลั๊กอุด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

15 UNION

Union

ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 REDUCE NIPPLE

Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 CROSS

Cross

เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Our Fitting Product​

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17 BALL VALVE 1PC

Ball Valve 1 pc

วาล์ว บอล 1 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

18 BALL VALVE 2PC

Ball Valve 2 pc

วาล์ว บอล 2 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

19 BALL VALVE 3PC

Ball Valve 3 pc

วาล์ว บอล 3 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

20 BALL VALVE 3WAY

Ball Valve 3 way

วาล์ว บอล 3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

26 NEEDLE VALVE

Needle Valve

วาล์วเข็ม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

21 GATE VALVE

Gate Valve

วาล์วประตู เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

22 GLOBE VALVE

Globe Valve

วาล์วควบคุม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

24 Y STRAINER VALVE

Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

23 SWING CHECK VALVE

Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

25 SPRING CHECK VALVE

Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

ฟิตติ้งสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งสแตนเลสเกรดโรงงานอุตสาหกรรม ราคาถูก

Valve Stainless

วาล์วสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

Fitting Brass

ฟิตติ้งทองเหลือง
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งทองเหลืองราคาส่ง
FITTINGTHAI BRASS PRODUCT
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1 Brass Adapter

Brass Adapter

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

2 Brass Bushing

Brass Bushing

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

We live in historic instances – for the first time in human historical past, greater than 50% of the world’s inhabitants live in cities. This development isn’t slowing down, especially in developing cities in China and Asia. High-rise buildings are a reality of modern cities. They fulfil the necessity to provide environment friendly, cost-effective housing and work house for growing numbers of individuals within the restricted confines of the town. They maximise land use and financial efficiency using ever-taller high-rise towers to fulfill the needs of rising populations.
Evolution of current high-rise design
Fundamental challenges of high-rise hearth security
By their nature, high-rise buildings current unique fire-safety challenges. For designers, builders, operators and house owners of those structures, a selection of basic challenges should be addressed to supply a reasonable stage of security from fireplace and its results.
The constructing structure must sustain a chronic fire publicity.
Fire and its effects have the potential to unfold vertically, affecting a massive number of building occupants.
Active fireplace methods may be minimize off from public utilities and should be self-sufficient.
Full building evacuation may be very difficult. A ‘Defend in Place’ strategy is required with solely selective evacuation from the Fire Area.
Occupants that do have to evacuate are removed from the ground and must depend on vertical means of escape.
Firefighting operations happen internally and sometimes far from the ground-based sources.
Burj Khalifa makes use of excessive velocity shuttle elevators to facilitate full constructing evacuation.
High-rise fire-safety strategy
In response to those distinctive challenges, the general fire technique for high-rise buildings must embody constructing options, techniques and response procedures that achieve the next targets:
Active and passive fire safety options to regulate fireplace development and to minimise the effects of fireplace on the structure and its occupants. Active methods include automatic sprinkler safety to control/suppress fireplace in a small area and smoke-management methods to comprise and control smoke motion to permit safe occupant evacuation. Passive elements embrace fire-resistant structure and fire barriers to keep the hearth from spreading vertically. All lively and passive techniques have to be maintained all through the life of the building to operate properly when needed.
Means of egress features to facilitate occupant evacuation within the event of a fire. Occupants of the constructing should be shielded from the effects of a fireplace within the building throughout their evacuation from the fireplace area. Fire-rated enclosed and mechanically pressurised stairs shield occupants from fire and smoke results throughout evacuation. Fire detection, alarm and communication techniques alert constructing personnel of a fire event and provide direction to occupants to evacuate.
Firefighting support systems that support operations performed primarily from inside the building, oftentimes in areas distant from fire-service equipment and ground help. Firefighting assist techniques embody vehicle entry, firefighter’s elevators (lifts), fire command centre, fireplace standpipe (wet riser) systems and firefighter communications all designed to facilitate emergency responders. In addition, constructing response plans and procedures must be carefully coordinated with first responders.
Codes and laws
The development of specific rules for high-rise buildings started after the Second World War with the enlargement of high-rise development, particularly within the United States. The 1975 Chicago Building Code is amongst the first codes to include a complete chapter particularly for high-rise buildings – High-Rise Chapter 13. This section of the code addresses the following particular requirements for high-rise buildings:
Structural Fire Resistance and Passive Protection Measures
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
Standpipes (Wet Risers)
Occupant and Fire Dept. Voice Communications
Stairway Unlocking to allow evacuating occupants to re-enter the building at a decrease level away from the hearth.
US Model Building Codes, British Standards and different European codes later added related specific provisions for high-rise buildings. Many of these requirements either have been adopted instantly or have been used as a technical basis for high-rise standards in creating nations. The result’s that there’s important variation in high-rise constructing standards from place to place and most particularly in the remedy of existing high-rise buildings constructed earlier than the enforcement of recent high-rise constructing codes.
As a result of the terrorist assault on the World Trade Center towers on 11 September 2001, the US authorities initiated a evaluate of high-rise design with the intention of offering recommended changes to building laws to further defend high-rise buildings from excessive incidents. The outcomes of those suggestions have been first introduced into the US-based International Building Code in 2009. These embrace new requirements for buildings taller than 420ft (128m) related to elevated structural hearth resistance, extra means of egress and resilience of energetic and passive fire-safety systems. Many of these provisions are incorporated in tall buildings globally.
Equally essential to the technical requirements is the method of implementing a profitable fire-safety strategy in new high-rise design or refurbishment of existing structures. The technical design for high-rise buildings all the time begins with establishing the regulatory framework for the venture. This is done by confirming the local codes and standards applicable to the venture – even in locations with a big number of tall buildings but especially within the growing world. Very tall buildings are usually much more ambitious and complex than anticipated by most building codes. For many projects, constructing codes could not absolutely handle the fire-safety challenges and there could additionally be a purpose to look past the established codes for ‘enhancements’ to the fire- and life-safety elements of the design.
In establishing this regulatory framework, crucial participant is the local authority having jurisdiction. They must be engaged early and sometimes throughout the design course of. It is suggested that a ‘working group’ be created with permanent members from the design team, ownership, contractor and native authority. This group should be maintained from the beginning of design via development and past. เกจวัดแรงดูด may also be responsible for agreeing on the application of the codes and any extra options of the design.
Contemporary high-rise design
In the design and operation of high-rise buildings, the designer ought to pay consideration to a selection of rising developments. Many of these new features and approaches are a result of our understanding that high-rise buildings require quite a lot of resiliency, in order that they maintain fireplace security even when one system or feature fails. These new options are also primarily based on our recognition that high-rise buildings should be designed to reply to all kinds of emergencies, in addition to fireplace.
Active fire-protection techniques are a crucial element in high-rise fire safety. As a result, these techniques should be designed to maximise their reliability. For systems that rely on fireplace pumps, the reliability of those pumps is crucial. This can be achieved by the pump designed to NFPA/UL normal or by the provision of redundant – Duty + Active Standby – pumps. Finally, contemplate the utilization of a number of provide risers and the protection of important risers within the building’s structural core. An different to systems that rely on hearth pumps is to make use of a gravity or ‘down-feed’ system whereby water is delivered to sprinklers and standpipes by gravity from tanks situated above the sprinkler system.
It is anticipated that full evacuation of a high-rise building shall be required under a selection of scenarios together with loss of energy or lack of mechanical methods. For this reason, elevators can provide an alternative technique of evacuating constructing occupants in some emergencies. In order to realize this function, elevators must be specifically designed for this function and provided with emergency power. The constructing must include safe areas (refuge areas, sky lobbies or enclosed elevator lobbies) to facilitate staging or evacuation occupants. Elevators should be included as a half of the building’s emergency response plan and must be operated in emergencies by educated constructing employees.
Atriums in tall buildings such as the Jin Mao tower in Shanghai introduce new complexity to occupant evacuation.
Operational elements
High-rise fire-safety methods rely heavily on energetic fireplace techniques and sophisticated evacuation sequencing. For this cause, the operational elements of high-rise buildings is of key importance. Active fireplace techniques should be continuously monitored, maintained and examined to guarantee their reliability in an emergency.
Another critical operational side is emergency planning and coaching. This begins with an Emergency Management Plan that outlines all foreseeable emergency eventualities and the response of constructing workers to those emergencies. The Emergency Management Plan ought to outline all threats whether or not they’re natural disasters, terrorism and security, or building systems emergencies. They should embody pre-planned response procedures for each event and they should include staff coaching and drills.
pressure gauge 4 นิ้ว ราคา in high-rise hearth security
There is little question that cities will proceed to grow and buildings will keep growing taller and taller. This means a selection of issues for future high-rise fire-safety design and operation:
More and increasingly advanced active fireplace techniques for fire control, smoke management, evacuation and firefighting.
Increased structural hearth resistance and robustness to guarantee that buildings will stand, so occupants can exit.
Reliability and redundancy of important building options might be more crucial.
Design, construction and operational features will have to be extra carefully built-in in order that buildings can be operated and maintained safely all through their lifecycle.
Fire safety in high-rise buildings is the shared challenge of designers, builders, fireplace authorities, owner/operators and customers to maintain a safe constructing environment for building occupants and first responders.
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