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Fundamentals of high-rise hearth safety

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2 90 ELBLOW

90 Elbow

ข้องอ 90 เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 TEE

Tee

3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 NIPPLE

Nipple

ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

14 STREET ELBOW

Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 COUPLING

Coupling

ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 ROUND CAP

Round Cap

ฝาครอบเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 REDUCE SOCKET

Reduce Socket

ข้อต่อลด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 HEX BUSHING

Hex Bushing

ข้อลดเหลี่ยม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

13 SQUARE PLUG

Square Plug

ปลั๊กอุด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

15 UNION

Union

ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 REDUCE NIPPLE

Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 CROSS

Cross

เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Our Fitting Product​

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17 BALL VALVE 1PC

Ball Valve 1 pc

วาล์ว บอล 1 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

18 BALL VALVE 2PC

Ball Valve 2 pc

วาล์ว บอล 2 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

19 BALL VALVE 3PC

Ball Valve 3 pc

วาล์ว บอล 3 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

20 BALL VALVE 3WAY

Ball Valve 3 way

วาล์ว บอล 3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

26 NEEDLE VALVE

Needle Valve

วาล์วเข็ม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

21 GATE VALVE

Gate Valve

วาล์วประตู เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

22 GLOBE VALVE

Globe Valve

วาล์วควบคุม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

24 Y STRAINER VALVE

Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

23 SWING CHECK VALVE

Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

25 SPRING CHECK VALVE

Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

ฟิตติ้งสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งสแตนเลสเกรดโรงงานอุตสาหกรรม ราคาถูก

Valve Stainless

วาล์วสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

Fitting Brass

ฟิตติ้งทองเหลือง
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งทองเหลืองราคาส่ง
FITTINGTHAI BRASS PRODUCT
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1 Brass Adapter

Brass Adapter

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

2 Brass Bushing

Brass Bushing

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

We reside in historic instances – for the first time in human history, more than 50% of the world’s population stay in cities. This pattern is not slowing down, especially in growing cities in China and Asia. High-rise buildings are a actuality of modern cities. They fulfil the necessity to provide efficient, cost-effective housing and work area for rising numbers of individuals throughout the limited confines of the town. They maximise land use and financial effectivity using ever-taller high-rise towers to meet the wants of growing populations.
Evolution of present high-rise design

Fundamental challenges of high-rise fireplace safety

By their nature, high-rise buildings current unique fire-safety challenges. For designers, builders, operators and homeowners of these buildings, a selection of basic challenges should be addressed to supply an inexpensive degree of security from fireplace and its results.
The constructing construction must sustain a protracted fire publicity.
Fire and its results have the potential to spread vertically, affecting a lot of building occupants.
Active hearth systems may be minimize off from public utilities and must be self-sufficient.
Full building evacuation may be very tough. A ‘Defend in Place’ strategy is required with solely selective evacuation from the Fire Area.
Occupants that do have to evacuate are removed from the ground and must depend on vertical technique of escape.
Firefighting operations occur internally and infrequently removed from the ground-based assets.
Burj Khalifa uses excessive velocity shuttle elevators to facilitate full constructing evacuation.
High-rise fire-safety method

In response to those unique challenges, the overall hearth strategy for high-rise buildings must include constructing options, techniques and response procedures that obtain the next targets:
Active and passive fire safety options to regulate fire progress and to minimise the results of fireside on the structure and its occupants. Active methods include automated sprinkler protection to control/suppress fire in a small space and smoke-management methods to include and management smoke motion to allow protected occupant evacuation. เกจวัดแรงดัน -resistant structure and fireplace limitations to maintain the hearth from spreading vertically. All lively and passive systems have to be maintained throughout the lifetime of the constructing to function properly when needed.
Means of egress features to facilitate occupant evacuation within the event of a fireplace. Occupants of the building have to be shielded from the results of a hearth in the building throughout their evacuation from the hearth area. Fire-rated enclosed and mechanically pressurised stairs defend occupants from fire and smoke results during evacuation. Fire detection, alarm and communication systems alert constructing personnel of a fire occasion and supply course to occupants to evacuate.
Firefighting assist methods that support operations performed primarily from inside the building, oftentimes in locations distant from fire-service equipment and ground support. Firefighting support systems include automobile access, firefighter’s elevators (lifts), fireplace command centre, hearth standpipe (wet riser) methods and firefighter communications all designed to facilitate emergency responders. In addition, building response plans and procedures have to be carefully coordinated with first responders.
pressure gauge and regulations

The improvement of particular regulations for high-rise buildings started after the Second World War with the growth of high-rise development, especially in the United States. The 1975 Chicago Building Code is among the first codes to incorporate a comprehensive chapter particularly for high-rise buildings – High-Rise Chapter thirteen. This part of the code addresses the next particular requirements for high-rise buildings:
Structural Fire Resistance and Passive Protection Measures

Automatic Sprinkler Systems

Standpipes (Wet Risers)

Occupant and Fire Dept. Voice Communications

Stairway Unlocking to permit evacuating occupants to re-enter the constructing at a decrease degree away from the fire.
US Model Building Codes, British Standards and other European codes later added similar particular provisions for high-rise buildings. Many of these standards both have been adopted instantly or have been used as a technical basis for high-rise standards in growing countries. The result’s that there’s significant variation in high-rise constructing standards from place to position and most particularly within the therapy of current high-rise buildings built before the enforcement of modern high-rise constructing codes.
As a results of the terrorist assault on the World Trade Center towers on 11 September 2001, the US government initiated a review of high-rise design with the intention of providing recommended adjustments to constructing rules to further defend high-rise buildings from extreme incidents. The outcomes of those suggestions were first launched into the US-based International Building Code in 2009. These include new necessities for buildings taller than 420ft (128m) related to elevated structural fire resistance, additional means of egress and resilience of energetic and passive fire-safety systems. Many of these provisions are included in tall buildings globally.
Equally important to the technical standards is the method of implementing a profitable fire-safety approach in new high-rise design or refurbishment of present buildings. The technical design for high-rise buildings all the time begins with establishing the regulatory framework for the challenge. This is completed by confirming the local codes and requirements applicable to the venture – even in places with a major number of tall buildings but especially within the creating world. Very tall buildings tend to be much more bold and complicated than anticipated by most building codes. For many tasks, constructing codes might not absolutely handle the fire-safety challenges and there could also be a cause to look beyond the established codes for ‘enhancements’ to the fire- and life-safety aspects of the design.
In establishing this regulatory framework, crucial participant is the native authority having jurisdiction. They need to be engaged early and infrequently throughout the design process. It is recommended that a ‘working group’ be created with permanent members from the design team, ownership, contractor and native authority. This group should be maintained from the beginning of design by way of construction and beyond. This group may even be responsible for agreeing on the appliance of the codes and any additional options of the design.
Contemporary high-rise design

In the design and operation of high-rise buildings, the designer should be conscious of numerous emerging trends. Many of these new options and approaches are a results of our understanding that high-rise buildings require quite so much of resiliency, so that they preserve fireplace security even when one system or feature fails. These new features are additionally based on our recognition that high-rise buildings must be designed to answer all kinds of emergencies, along with fire.
Active fire-protection systems are a crucial part in high-rise fireplace security. As a outcome, these techniques must be designed to maximise their reliability. For methods that depend on fire pumps, the reliability of these pumps is important. This may be achieved by the pump designed to NFPA/UL normal or by the provision of redundant – Duty + Active Standby – pumps. Finally, contemplate the utilization of a quantity of provide risers and the safety of crucial risers throughout the building’s structural core. An alternative to systems that rely on fireplace pumps is to use a gravity or ‘down-feed’ system whereby water is delivered to sprinklers and standpipes by gravity from tanks located above the sprinkler system.
It is anticipated that full evacuation of a high-rise building will be required underneath a variety of situations together with loss of power or loss of mechanical methods. For this cause, elevators can provide another means of evacuating constructing occupants in some emergencies. In order to realize this function, elevators have to be particularly designed for this function and supplied with emergency power. The constructing must embody safe areas (refuge areas, sky lobbies or enclosed elevator lobbies) to facilitate staging or evacuation occupants. Elevators must be included as part of the building’s emergency response plan and must be operated in emergencies by educated building employees.
Atriums in tall buildings such because the Jin Mao tower in Shanghai introduce new complexity to occupant evacuation.
Operational aspects

High-rise fire-safety methods rely heavily on active hearth systems and complex evacuation sequencing. For this purpose, the operational features of high-rise buildings is of key importance. Active fire systems have to be continually monitored, maintained and examined to assure their reliability in an emergency.
Another critical operational facet is emergency planning and training. This begins with an Emergency Management Plan that outlines all foreseeable emergency eventualities and the response of building workers to those emergencies. The Emergency Management Plan should outline all threats whether or not they’re pure disasters, terrorism and security, or constructing techniques emergencies. They should include pre-planned response procedures for every event and they need to embody employees coaching and drills.
Future instructions in high-rise fire security

There is no doubt that cities will proceed to grow and buildings will keep growing taller and taller. This means a quantity of issues for future high-rise fire-safety design and operation:
More and increasingly advanced active fire methods for hearth management, smoke administration, evacuation and firefighting.
Increased structural fireplace resistance and robustness to ensure that buildings will stand, so occupants can exit.
Reliability and redundancy of crucial constructing options might be more important.
Design, construction and operational elements will need to be extra intently integrated so that buildings may be operated and maintained safely all through their lifecycle.
Fire security in high-rise buildings is the shared challenge of designers, builders, fireplace authorities, owner/operators and users to take care of a safe constructing surroundings for building occupants and first responders.
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