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Fire Safety for Very Tall Buildings

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Elbow 90 , Tee , Host Nipple , Street Elbow , Coupling , Round Cap , Red Socket ,
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90 Elbow

ข้องอ 90 เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
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10 TEE


3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"



ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
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Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"



ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
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Round Cap

ฝาครอบเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Reduce Socket

ข้อต่อลด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
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Hex Bushing

ข้อลดเหลี่ยม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Square Plug

ปลั๊กอุด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"



ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"



เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

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Ball Valve 1 pc

วาล์ว บอล 1 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Ball Valve 2 pc

วาล์ว บอล 2 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Ball Valve 3 pc

วาล์ว บอล 3 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Ball Valve 3 way

วาล์ว บอล 3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Needle Valve

วาล์วเข็ม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Gate Valve

วาล์วประตู เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Globe Valve

วาล์วควบคุม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"


Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งสแตนเลสเกรดโรงงานอุตสาหกรรม ราคาถูก

Valve Stainless

จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

Fitting Brass

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Ball Valve 1pc , 2pc ,3pc , Gate Valve , Globe Valve , Y-Strainer , Swing Check Valve , Spring Check Valve ,Needle Valve
1 Brass Adapter

Brass Adapter

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

2 Brass Bushing

Brass Bushing

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Very tall buildings have unique hearth safety design issues that aren’t experienced in other forms of buildings. For pressure gauge 10 bar , because the height of the structure is beyond the reach of ladders, tall buildings are outfitted with more hearth safety features as it’s not potential for the hearth department to provoke exterior rescues from ladders and suppress fires with outside hose streams.
In regards to fireplace security, the efficiency historical past of very tall buildings whereas very successful, has not been with out catastrophic incidents. Many of these incidents have resulted in 1) numerous deaths and injuries, 2) excessive property loss and 3) disruptions in business continuity. For example, the One Meridian Plaza high-rise hearth in Philadelphia that occurred in 1991 resulted in the lack of three firefighters and constructing never being re-opened. In 1988, the fireplace in the Interstate Bank Building in Los Angeles skilled one fatality and resulted within the constructing being out of use for six months.
Based on research and classes discovered, the mannequin building codes have made vital progress in addressing hearth issues of safety in very tall buildings. At the identical time, the complexity and distinctive challenges of today’s very tall buildings have created an environment where comprehensive performance-based solutions have become a necessity.
To help the design community with creating performance-based fireplace security solutions for very tall buildings, in 2013, the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) partnered with the International Code Council (ICC) to develop the Engineering Guide: Fire Safety in Very Tall Buildings.1 This publication is written as a information for use along side local codes and standards and serves as an added software to those concerned in the hearth protection design of distinctive tall buildings. The guide focuses on design points that affect the fireplace safety performance of tall buildings and the way engineers can incorporate performance-based fire safety via hazard and threat analysis methodologies into the design of tall buildings. This article will discuss a variety of the unique fireplace safety design strategies/methodologies employed within the design of tall buildings which would possibly be referenced within the ICC/SFPE Guide.
Emergency Egress

Developing an efficient evacuation strategy for a tall constructing is difficult because the time to complete a full building evacuation increases with building peak. At the same time, above certain heights, the standard technique of requiring all occupants to simultaneous evacuate is in all probability not practical as occupants turn into extra susceptible to further risks when evacuating through stairways. That is why tall buildings often employ non-traditional or alternative evacuation strategies.
When designing an egress plan for a tall constructing, the first aim must be to provide an appropriate means to permit occupants to maneuver to a spot of security. To accomplish this objective, there are several evacuation methodologies which are obtainable to the design team. These evacuation strategies can embody however aren’t restricted to 1) defend-in-place, 2) transferring people to areas of refuge and 3) phased/progressive evacuation. It can also be potential that a mixture of these methods could be this greatest resolution. When deciding on an appropriate strategy, the design team should contemplate the required stage of safety for the building occupants and the constructing performance objectives that are identified by the building’s stakeholders.
Using protected elevators has become another evacuation strategy that’s turning into extra prevalent in the design of tall buildings. In addition to aiding the fireplace department with operations and rescues, protected elevators at the moment are getting used for building evacuation, significantly for occupants with disabilities. When considering elevators in an evacuation technique, there are a selection of design issues to contemplate: 1) security and reliability of the elevators, 2) coordination of elevator controls and constructing security methods, 3) schooling of building occupants and first responders and 4) communication to constructing occupants in the course of the emergency.
Tall buildings usually make use of non-traditional or various evacuation methods.
Fire Resistance

The penalties of partial or global collapse of tall buildings because of a severe fireplace pose a major risk to a massive quantity of folks, the hearth service and surrounding buildings. At the identical time, tall buildings typically have unique design features whose function within the construction and fireplace response are not easily understood using conventional fire safety methods. These distinctive factors might warrant a have to adopt an advanced structural fire engineering analysis to show that the building’s performance aims are met.
Performance-based design of structural hearth resistance entails three steps: (1) willpower of the thermal boundary circumstances to a construction resulting from a fireplace; (2) calculation of the thermal response of the structure to the fireplace exposure, and (3) determination of the structural response of the structure. Guidance on performing this type of analysis could be discovered in the SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculating Fire Exposures to Structures2, and SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculation Methods to Predict the Thermal Performance of Structural and Fire Resistive Assemblies.three

Water-Based Fire Suppression Systems

In tall buildings, the water provide required for hearth protection systems may be larger than the capability of the public water provide. As such, fireplace protection system water supplies for sprinkler methods and standpipes require the use of pumps and/or gravity water tanks to spice up the water pressure. Reliability of this water provide is a key consideration. As such, redundant hearth pumps, gravity-based storage supplies, or each could also be needed to boost system reliability.
Another concern to suppose about when designing water-based fireplace suppression techniques is stress management as it’s attainable for system parts to be exposed to pressures that exceed its maximum working strain. Consequently, it could be essential to design vertical strain zones to manage pressures within the zone. Additionally, strain regulating valves are often needed. When put in, care must be taken to make certain that these strain regulating valves are installed properly and adequately maintained.
Fire Alarm and Communication Systems

Providing constructing occupants with correct info during emergencies will increase their ability to make applicable selections about their very own security. Fire alarm and communication methods are an essential source of this data. Very tall buildings make use of voice communication techniques that are integrated into the fire alarm system. When designing voice communication methods it is necessary to ensure that the system supplies dependable and credible data.
Fire alarm system survivability is another import factor to contemplate in fireplace alarm system design. For tall buildings, consideration should be given so that an attack by a fireplace in an evacuation zone does not impair the voice messaging outdoors the zone. Some of the design concerns to attain survivability could include: 1) protection of management tools from fire, 2) protection of circuits. 3) configuration of circuits and 4) shielding of panels.
Tall buildings usually make use of smoke control systems that either vent, exhaust or restrict the spread of smoke.
Smoke Control

Controlling the unfold of smoke is extra complicated in tall buildings. For example, tall buildings experience a phenomenon called stack impact. Stack effect happens when a tall building experiences a stress difference throughout its height on account of temperature differentials between the skin air temperature and the inside constructing temperature. This causes air to maneuver vertically, depending on the outside air temperature – both upward or downward in a building. It also can trigger smoke from a building fireplace to unfold all through the building if not managed. That is why tall buildings typically make use of smoke management methods that either vent, exhaust or restrict the unfold of smoke.
Other considerations in tall buildings included the air motion created by the piston effect of elevators and the effects of wind. Air movement attributable to elevator automobiles ascending and descending in a shaft and the consequences of wind can outcome in smoke motion in tall buildings. These impacts turn out to be more pronounced as the height of the building enhance.
Because very tall buildings complicate smoke unfold, effective smoke management is harder to achieve. The potential options are numerous and embody a mix of lively and passive features corresponding to however not restricted to: 1) smoke barrier walls and flooring, 2) stairway pressurization systems, 3) pressurized zoned smoke management supplied by the air-handling equipment, and 4) smoke dampers. The resolution applied into the design wants to deal with the constructing itself, its makes use of, relevant occupant characteristics and reliability.
First Service Issues

It goes with out saying that tall buildings present distinctive challenges to the fire service. During the planning and design phases, it’s important for the design team to work with the fireplace service to discuss the sort of resources which are needed for an incident and the actions that will be wanted to mitigate an incident. This contains creating development and post-construction preplans. These preplans should include and never be restricted to making provisions for 1) fire service access including transport to the highest level of the building, 2) establishing a water provide, 3) standpipe methods (temporary and permanent), 4) communication techniques, and 5) understanding the operations of the fireplace safety methods within the constructing.
One of the challenges the fire service faces throughout incidents in tall buildings is the flexibility of firefighters to maneuver gear to the incident location. Designers ought to take into account how the fire service can transport its gear from the response degree to the best level in a safe method.
Additionally, care must be taken when designing the fire command center as it’ll provide the fire service command workers with essential information about the incident. The fire command center needs to be accessible and may include 1) controls for building systems, 2) contact info for constructing management, 3) present buildings plans, 4) emergency response and egress plans and 5) preplans.
1 International Code Council/SFPE. (2013). Engineering Guide: Fire Safety for Very Tall Buildings. Country Club Hills, IL.
2 SFPE. (2011). SFPE Standard S.01 2011, Engineering Standards on Calculating Fire Exposures to Structures. Gaithersburg, Maryland.
three SFPE. 2015). SFPE Standard S.02 2015, SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculation Methods to Predict the Thermal Performance of Structural and Fire Resistive Assemblies. Gaithersburg, Maryland.