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Fire Safety for Very Tall Buildings

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2 90 ELBLOW

90 Elbow

ข้องอ 90 เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 TEE

Tee

3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 NIPPLE

Nipple

ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

14 STREET ELBOW

Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 COUPLING

Coupling

ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 ROUND CAP

Round Cap

ฝาครอบเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 REDUCE SOCKET

Reduce Socket

ข้อต่อลด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 HEX BUSHING

Hex Bushing

ข้อลดเหลี่ยม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

13 SQUARE PLUG

Square Plug

ปลั๊กอุด เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

15 UNION

Union

ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 REDUCE NIPPLE

Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 CROSS

Cross

เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

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17 BALL VALVE 1PC

Ball Valve 1 pc

วาล์ว บอล 1 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

18 BALL VALVE 2PC

Ball Valve 2 pc

วาล์ว บอล 2 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

19 BALL VALVE 3PC

Ball Valve 3 pc

วาล์ว บอล 3 ชิ้น เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

20 BALL VALVE 3WAY

Ball Valve 3 way

วาล์ว บอล 3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

26 NEEDLE VALVE

Needle Valve

วาล์วเข็ม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

21 GATE VALVE

Gate Valve

วาล์วประตู เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

22 GLOBE VALVE

Globe Valve

วาล์วควบคุม เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

24 Y STRAINER VALVE

Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

23 SWING CHECK VALVE

Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

25 SPRING CHECK VALVE

Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

ฟิตติ้งสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งสแตนเลสเกรดโรงงานอุตสาหกรรม ราคาถูก

Valve Stainless

วาล์วสแตนเลส
จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

Fitting Brass

ฟิตติ้งทองเหลือง
จำหน่ายฟิตติ้งทองเหลืองราคาส่ง
FITTINGTHAI BRASS PRODUCT
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1 Brass Adapter

Brass Adapter

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

2 Brass Bushing

Brass Bushing

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Very tall buildings have unique fire security design points that aren’t skilled in different types of structures. For instance, as a result of the height of the structure is beyond the attain of ladders, tall buildings are outfitted with extra hearth security options as it is not attainable for the fire division to initiate exterior rescues from ladders and suppress fires with exterior hose streams.
In regards to fire security, the performance history of very tall buildings while very profitable, has not been with out catastrophic incidents. Many of these incidents have resulted in 1) numerous deaths and accidents, 2) extreme property loss and 3) disruptions in business continuity. For example, the One Meridian Plaza high-rise fireplace in Philadelphia that occurred in 1991 resulted in the loss of three firefighters and building by no means being re-opened. In 1988, the fireplace within the Interstate Bank Building in Los Angeles experienced one fatality and resulted within the building being out of use for six months.
Based on analysis and lessons realized, the mannequin constructing codes have made vital progress in addressing fire questions of safety in very tall buildings. At the identical time, the complexity and distinctive challenges of today’s very tall buildings have created an environment where complete performance-based solutions have turn out to be a necessity.
To help the design neighborhood with growing performance-based fire safety options for very tall buildings, in 2013, the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) partnered with the International Code Council (ICC) to develop the Engineering Guide: Fire Safety in Very Tall Buildings.1 This publication is written as a information to be used at the side of native codes and standards and serves as an added software to these involved within the fireplace safety design of distinctive tall buildings. The information focuses on design points that affect the hearth safety efficiency of tall buildings and the way engineers can incorporate performance-based fireplace protection by way of hazard and threat analysis methodologies into the design of tall buildings. This article will discuss a variety of the distinctive fireplace safety design strategies/methodologies employed in the design of tall buildings that are referenced in the ICC/SFPE Guide.
Emergency Egress

Developing an efficient evacuation strategy for a tall constructing is challenging because the time to complete a full constructing evacuation will increase with building top. At the same time, above sure heights, the traditional method of requiring all occupants to simultaneous evacuate will not be practical as occupants become extra weak to further dangers when evacuating via stairways. That is why tall buildings often make use of non-traditional or alternative evacuation strategies.
When designing an egress plan for a tall constructing, the primary goal must be to provide an appropriate means to allow occupants to maneuver to a spot of security. To accomplish this aim, there are several evacuation methodologies which are available to the design group. These evacuation strategies can include however aren’t restricted to 1) defend-in-place, 2) transferring individuals to areas of refuge and 3) phased/progressive evacuation. It can be possible that a mixture of those strategies can be this greatest solution. When deciding on an appropriate strategy, the design group should contemplate the required degree of safety for the constructing occupants and the building performance objectives which are recognized by the building’s stakeholders.
Using protected elevators has become another evacuation technique that’s changing into more prevalent within the design of tall buildings. In ไดอะแฟรม ซีล to helping the hearth division with operations and rescues, protected elevators are now being used for building evacuation, particularly for occupants with disabilities. When contemplating elevators in an evacuation technique, there are a number of design concerns to consider: 1) security and reliability of the elevators, 2) coordination of elevator controls and constructing security methods, 3) schooling of building occupants and first responders and 4) communication to constructing occupants through the emergency.
Tall buildings typically employ non-traditional or different evacuation methods.
Fire Resistance

The consequences of partial or world collapse of tall buildings as a outcome of a severe hearth pose a significant danger to a giant number of people, the fire service and surrounding buildings. At the same time, tall buildings typically have distinctive design options whose role within the structure and fire response aren’t easily understood utilizing traditional fire safety strategies. These unique components could warrant a have to adopt an advanced structural hearth engineering analysis to reveal that the building’s efficiency goals are met.
Performance-based design of structural hearth resistance entails three steps: (1) willpower of the thermal boundary circumstances to a structure resulting from a fire; (2) calculation of the thermal response of the structure to the hearth publicity, and (3) determination of the structural response of the structure. Guidance on performing this kind of evaluation may be found in the SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculating Fire Exposures to Structures2, and SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculation Methods to Predict the Thermal Performance of Structural and Fire Resistive Assemblies.three

Water-Based Fire Suppression Systems

In tall buildings, the water supply required for fireplace safety systems may be larger than the aptitude of the public water provide. As such, fire protection system water provides for sprinkler methods and standpipes require the use of pumps and/or gravity water tanks to spice up the water pressure. Reliability of this water provide is a key consideration. As such, redundant fireplace pumps, gravity-based storage provides, or each could also be needed to boost system reliability.
Another concern to assume about when designing water-based fireplace suppression systems is stress control as it is potential for system parts to be exposed to pressures that exceed its maximum working stress. Consequently, it may be essential to design vertical strain zones to regulate pressures in the zone. Additionally, strain regulating valves are often wanted. When put in, care must be taken to ensure that these pressure regulating valves are put in correctly and adequately maintained.
Fire Alarm and Communication Systems

Providing constructing occupants with accurate information throughout emergencies will increase their capability to make acceptable selections about their very own safety. Fire alarm and communication systems are an necessary source of this data. Very tall buildings make use of voice communication techniques that are built-in into the fire alarm system. When designing voice communication techniques you will want to be positive that the system provides reliable and credible info.
Fire alarm system survivability is another import issue to contemplate in fire alarm system design. For tall buildings, consideration ought to be given so that an attack by a fire in an evacuation zone does not impair the voice messaging outside the zone. Some of the design considerations to realize survivability might include: 1) safety of control tools from fireplace, 2) protection of circuits. 3) configuration of circuits and 4) shielding of panels.
Tall buildings typically make use of smoke management systems that either vent, exhaust or restrict the unfold of smoke.
Smoke Control

Controlling the spread of smoke is extra complicated in tall buildings. For example, tall buildings expertise a phenomenon referred to as stack impact. Stack effect occurs when a tall constructing experiences a pressure difference throughout its peak as a outcome of temperature differentials between the surface air temperature and the within constructing temperature. This causes air to move vertically, depending on the skin air temperature – both upward or downward in a constructing. It can even trigger smoke from a building fire to spread all through the building if not managed. That is why tall buildings usually employ smoke management systems that both vent, exhaust or limit the spread of smoke.
Other issues in tall buildings included the air movement created by the piston impact of elevators and the consequences of wind. Air movement caused by elevator automobiles ascending and descending in a shaft and the results of wind can result in smoke movement in tall buildings. These impacts turn into more pronounced as the height of the building enhance.
Because very tall buildings complicate smoke unfold, efficient smoke control is harder to realize. The attainable solutions are numerous and embody a mix of lively and passive options such as but not limited to: 1) smoke barrier partitions and floors, 2) stairway pressurization techniques, 3) pressurized zoned smoke control offered by the air-handling equipment, and 4) smoke dampers. The resolution carried out into the design wants to address the building itself, its makes use of, relevant occupant traits and reliability.
First Service Issues

It goes with out saying that tall buildings current unique challenges to the hearth service. During the planning and design phases, it is necessary for the design team to work with the fire service to debate the kind of assets which would possibly be wanted for an incident and the actions that shall be needed to mitigate an incident. This includes growing construction and post-construction preplans. These preplans should embrace and not be limited to creating provisions for 1) hearth service access including transport to the very best level of the constructing, 2) establishing a water supply, 3) standpipe methods (temporary and permanent), 4) communication techniques, and 5) understanding the operations of the fireplace safety techniques in the building.
One of the challenges the hearth service faces during incidents in tall buildings is the power of firefighters to move gear to the incident location. Designers ought to keep in mind how the fireplace service can transport its equipment from the response level to the best stage in a secure manner.
Additionally, care must be taken when designing the fire command middle as it’s going to provide the fire service command staff with essential details about the incident. The hearth command middle needs to be accessible and may include 1) controls for constructing systems, 2) contact info for constructing management, 3) present buildings plans, 4) emergency response and egress plans and 5) preplans.
1 International Code Council/SFPE. (2013). Engineering Guide: Fire Safety for Very Tall Buildings. Country Club Hills, IL.
2 SFPE. (2011). SFPE Standard S.01 2011, Engineering Standards on Calculating Fire Exposures to Structures. Gaithersburg, Maryland.
three SFPE. 2015). SFPE Standard S.02 2015, SFPE Engineering Standard on Calculation Methods to Predict the Thermal Performance of Structural and Fire Resistive Assemblies. Gaithersburg, Maryland.
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