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Fire Performance of Electric Cables

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2 90 ELBLOW

90 Elbow

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10 TEE

Tee

3 ทาง เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 NIPPLE

Nipple

ท่อเกลียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

14 STREET ELBOW

Street Elbow

ตัวข้องอ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

3 COUPLING

Coupling

ยอย เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 ROUND CAP

Round Cap

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 REDUCE SOCKET

Reduce Socket

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 HEX BUSHING

Hex Bushing

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13 SQUARE PLUG

Square Plug

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

15 UNION

Union

ยูเนียน เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 REDUCE NIPPLE

Reduce Nipple

ลดเกบียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 CROSS

Cross

เกลียวกากบาท เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

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17 BALL VALVE 1PC

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18 BALL VALVE 2PC

Ball Valve 2 pc

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19 BALL VALVE 3PC

Ball Valve 3 pc

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20 BALL VALVE 3WAY

Ball Valve 3 way

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

26 NEEDLE VALVE

Needle Valve

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21 GATE VALVE

Gate Valve

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

22 GLOBE VALVE

Globe Valve

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

24 Y STRAINER VALVE

Y Strainer

ตัวกรอง Y เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

23 SWING CHECK VALVE

Swing Check Valve

ประตูลิ้นกลับ เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

25 SPRING CHECK VALVE

Spring Check Valve

วาล์วปิดกลั้นทางเดียว เกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Fitting Stainless

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Valve Stainless

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จำหน่ายวาล์วสแตนเลส 304 ,316 ราคาส่งโรงงาน

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FITTINGTHAI BRASS PRODUCT
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2 Brass Bushing

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3 Brass 90 Elbow

Brass 90 Elbow

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

4 Brass Hose Nipple

Brass Hose Nipple

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

5 Brass Nipple

Brass Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

6 Brass Reduce Nipple

Brass Reduce Nipple

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

7 Brass Tee

Brass Tee

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

8 Brass Union

Brass Union

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

9 Brass Ball Valve 1pc

Brass Ball Valve 1 pc

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

10 Brass Ball Valve 2pc

Brass Ball Valve 2 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

11 Brass Ball Valve 3pc

Brass Ball Valve 3 pc

Tee way 3 ทางเกรดอุตสาหกรรม
มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

12 Brass Ball Valve 3way

Brass Ball Valve 3 way

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มีให้เลือกตั้งแต่ 1/8" - 4"

Often the best flame retardant cables are halogenated because each the insulation and outer Jacket are flame retardant but once we need Halogen Free cables we find it is typically solely the outer jacket which is flame retardant and the internal insulation isn’t.
This has significance because while cables with a flame retardant outer jacket will usually pass flame retardance tests with exterior flame, the same cables when subjected to excessive overload or extended brief circuits have proved in college checks to be extremely flammable and might even begin a hearth. This effect is thought and revealed (8th International Conference on Insulated Power Cables (Jicable’11 – June 2011) held in Versailles, France) so it is perhaps shocking that there aren’t any widespread test protocols for this seemingly common event and one cited by both authorities and media as reason for constructing fires.
Further, in Flame Retardant test methods similar to IEC60332 components 1 & 3 which make use of an external flame source, the cable samples aren’t pre-conditioned to regular working temperature however tested at room temperature. This oversight is important particularly for energy circuits because the temperature index of the cable (the temperature at which the cable material will self-support combustion in normal air) will be considerably affected by its beginning temperature i.e.: The hotter the cable is, the extra easily it’s going to propagate hearth.
It would appear that a want exists to re-evaluate present cable flame retardance test strategies as these are commonly understood by consultants and shoppers alike to provide a reliable indication of a cables capacity to retard the propagation of fire.
If we can’t trust the Standards what will we do?
In the USA many building requirements don’t require halogen free cables. Certainly this is not as a outcome of Americans aren’t properly knowledgeable of the hazards; quite the method taken is that: “It is healthier to have extremely flame retardant cables which don’t propagate fireplace than minimally flame retardant cables which may spread a fire” – (a small fire with some halogen could also be better than a big fire with out halogens). One of the best ways to make a cable insulation and cable jacket highly flame retardant is through the use of halogens.
Europe and many international locations around the world adopt a different mentality: Halogen Free and Flame Retardant. Whilst that is an admirable mandate the fact is somewhat totally different: Flame propagation checks for cables as adopted in UK and Europe can arguably be said to be less stringent than some of the flame propagation exams for cables in USA resulting in the conclusion that widespread checks in UK and Europe could merely be exams the cables can move somewhat than tests the cables ought to cross.
Conclusion
For most versatile polymeric cables the choice remains today between excessive flame propagation performance with halogens or decreased flame propagation efficiency without halogens.
Enclosing cables in metal conduit will reduce propagation on the point of fire but hydrocarbon based combustion gasses from decomposing polymers are likely propagate by way of the conduits to switchboards, distribution boards and junction bins in different elements of the constructing. Any spark such because the opening or closing of circuit breakers, or contactors is likely to ignite the flamable gasses leading to explosion and spreading the hearth to a different location.
While MICC (Mineral Insulated Metal Sheathed) cables would provide an answer, there might be usually no singe excellent reply for each set up so designers need to judge the required efficiency on a “project-by-project” basis to resolve which expertise is optimal.
The primary importance of fireplace load
Inside all buildings and initiatives electrical cables present the connectivity which retains lights on, air-conditioning working and the lifts operating. It powers computer systems, office tools and supplies the connection for our phone and computer systems. Even our cellphones want to connect with wireless or GSM antennas which are related to the telecom network by fiber optic or copper cables. Cables ensure our safety by connecting
hearth alarms, emergency voice communication, CCTV, smoke shutters, air pressurization fans, emergency lighting, fireplace sprinkler pumps, smoke and heat detectors, and so many different features of a contemporary Building Management System.
Where public safety is necessary we often request cables to have added security options similar to flame retardance to make sure the cables don’t simply spread fireplace, circuit integrity throughout fireplace so that important fire-fighting and life safety equipment keep working. Sometimes เกจวัดความดันpressuregauge may recognize that the combustion of electrical cables produces smoke and this could be poisonous so we name for cables to be Low Smoke and Halogen Free. Logically and intuitively we predict that by requesting these special properties the cables we buy and set up shall be safer
Because cables are put in by many different trades for different purposes and are largely hidden or embedded in our constructions, what is usually not realized is that the various miles of cables and tons of plastic polymers which make up the cables can represent one of many greatest fire hundreds within the building. This level is certainly worth pondering more about.
PVC, XLPE, EPR, CSP, LSOH (Low Smoke Zero Halogen) and even HFFR (Halogen Free Flame Retardant) cable materials are largely based on hydrocarbon polymers. These base supplies aren’t generally flame retardant and naturally have a excessive hearth load. Cable producers make them flame retardant by including compounds and chemical substances. Certainly this improves the volatility of burning but the gasoline content material of the bottom polymers stays.
Tables 1 and a pair of above compare the hearth load in MJ/Kg for frequent cable insulating supplies against some frequent fuels. The Heat Release Rate and volatility in air for these materials will differ however the gasoline added to a fireplace per kilogram and the consequential quantity of heat generated and oxygen consumed is relative.
The quantity in kilometers and tons of cables put in in our buildings and the associated fire load of the insulations is considerable. This is particularly important in tasks with lengthy egress instances like excessive rise, public buildings, tunnels and underground environments, airports, hospitals and so forth.
When considering hearth safety we should first perceive the most important elements. Fire experts inform us most hearth associated deaths in buildings are attributable to smoke inhalation, temperature rise and oxygen depletion or by trauma caused by jumping in making an attempt to escape these effects.
Smoke
The first and most important aspect of smoke is how a lot smoke? Typically the larger the hearth the extra smoke is generated so anything we can do to reduce the spread of fire may even correspondingly scale back the amount of smoke.
Smoke will include particulates of carbon, ash and other solids, liquids and gasses, many are toxic and combustible. In explicit, fires in confined areas like buildings, tunnels and underground environments trigger oxygen ranges to drop, this contributes to incomplete burning and smoldering which produces increased quantities of smoke and poisonous byproducts including CO and CO2. Presence of halogenated materials will release poisonous Halides like Hydrogen Chloride together with many different poisonous and flammable gasses within the smoke.
For this purpose common smoke tests conducted on cable insulation materials in large 3 meter3 chambers with plenty of air can present deceptive smoke figures as a result of complete burning will usually launch significantly less smoke than partial incomplete burning which is likely in practice. Simply specifying IEC 61034 with a defined obscuration value then thinking this can provide a low smoke environment during fire might unfortunately be little of assist for the folks really involved.
Halogens, Toxicity, Fuel Element, Oxygen Depletion and Temperature Rise
It is concerning that Europe and different nations undertake the idea of halogen free supplies with out correctly addressing the subject of toxicity. Halogens released during combustion are extraordinarily toxic however so too is carbon monoxide and this isn’t a halogen gas. It is common to call for halogen free cables and then enable the use of Polyethylene as a result of it’s halogen free. Burning Polyethylene (which can be seen from the table above has the highest MJ gas load per Kg of all insulations) will generate virtually 3 occasions more warmth than an equivalent PVC cable. This means is that burning polyethylene will not solely generate nearly 3 instances more heat but additionally eat almost 3 occasions extra oxygen and produce considerably more carbon monoxide. Given carbon monoxide is responsible for most toxicity deaths in fires this situation is at finest alarming!
The fuel parts shown within the desk above point out the quantity of heat which might be generated by burning 1kg of the frequent cable insulations tabled. Certainly this warmth will speed up the burning of other adjacent supplies and may help unfold the hearth in a building however importantly, so as to generate the warmth vitality, oxygen needs to be consumed. The higher the warmth of combustion the more oxygen is needed, so by choosing insulations with excessive fuel components is adding significantly to a minimal of 4 of the first dangers of fires: Temperature Rise, Oxygen Depletion, Flame Spread and Carbon Monoxide Release.
Perhaps it’s best to put in polymeric cables inside metal conduits. This will certainly assist flame spread and reduce smoke as a result of inside the conduit oxygen is proscribed; however this isn’t an answer. As stated previously, lots of the gasses from the decomposing polymeric insulations inside the conduits are highly flammable and toxic. These gases will migrate alongside the conduits to junction boxes, swap panels, distribution boards, motor control facilities, lamps, switches, and so on. On getting into the gases can ignite or explode with any arcing such as the make/break of a circuit breaker, contactor, change or relay inflicting the hearth to unfold to another location.
Conclusion
The popularity of “Halogen Free” while ignoring the other toxic components of fire is a transparent admission we do not perceive the subject nicely nor can we easily define the hazards of combined toxic elements or human physiological response to them. It is necessary however, that we don’t continue to design with solely half an understanding of the issue. While no good answer exists for natural based cables, we will certainly minimize these critically necessary effects of fireplace risk:
One possibility perhaps to choose cable insulations and jacket materials which are halogen free and have a low gasoline element, then set up them in metal conduit or perhaps the American approach is healthier: to make use of highly halogenated insulations so that in case of fireplace any flame spread is minimized.
For most energy, management, communication and knowledge circuits there could be one full answer available for all the problems raised in this paper. It is a solution which has been used reliably for over eighty years. MICC cables can provide a complete and full answer to all the problems related to the fire security of natural polymer cables.
The copper jacket, magnesium oxide insulation and copper conductors of MICC make certain the cable is effectively fire proof. MICC cables have no organic content material so merely can not propagate flame or generate any smoke. The zero gas load ensures no heat is added and no oxygen is consumed.
Being inorganic MICC cables can’t generate any halogen or toxic gasses at all together with CO.
Unfortunately many widespread cable fireplace check strategies used right now might inadvertently mislead individuals into believing the polymeric flexible cable merchandise they purchase and use will perform as anticipated in all fire situations. As outlined in this paper, sadly this is in all probability not correct.
For more data, go to www.temperature-house.com
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